First person singular.


  1. First case.
    The supposed Indo-European basis of the first case is “*EG”. This supposition has been influenced much by looking at Latin and Greek only.


    We suppose that, if there has been a common original Indo-European word, this would have been “*IGH”, somewhere between Germanic and Hebrew. This “*IGH” must have been derived from an older form “*OGH”.
    In this way we find the old Waw, as vowel O or thinned into I , either preceded or followed by GH. This GH again may become K or Y.


  2. Other cases and possession.
    The additional sound is M , but only used in Indo-European languages. Hebrew sticks to the I, preceded or not by GH or KH.



Second person singular.

We find two different characteristic or basic sounds : GH and T, naturally always followed or preceded by a vowel.
Hebrew uses both, T in the first case of personal pronouns and GH in the other cases. This includes the indication of possession.
Germanic also uses both in more classic English, German and Nordic, but no more in modern English and Dutch, that stick to the GH only, though this generally has become a Y (in Dutch spelled J).
The Indo-European origin of GH is believed to be “*yu”, but the modern forms with “y”, as in English, have all been formed through alteration of the original “GH”. So the determinating element has been “GH”, just as we find in Hebrew.


The T we also find in Latin. This original “T” has also lived on in English “thou”, German “du” etcetera. Found in Latin and Germanic it is normally but not always accompanied by a Waw-derived vowel, mostly U, sometimes I.



Third person singular.


The elements of recognition are H and S.
Here the common element “H” is present in both Germanic and Hebrew, but not in Latin. By the way, also German does not know this “H”, but the Nordic languages do have it.
Latin has the S.



First person plural


“N” is the common element in Latin and Hebrew, mostly accompanied by O or U as vowel, which indicates an old W. This W is then found in Germanic languages. Therefore the basic elements are N + U < W. To express the first person, the N has been added in Latin to the basis of the second person.



Second person plural


As a common element we find the “WAW”, the letter that shifts from consonants like W and V or F to vowels like O and U. In European languages we find its offspring also in combinations of V + O or V + U, however spelled.


In this segment we find in Hebrew the same T and GH of the second person singular. Thus the distinction is first of all between the numbers. After that we find the same suffix or second part of the third person singular that is also found in Germanic.



Third person plural


The H is frequent in Germanic languages, also those not referred to here, such as the Scandinavian ones. And we see it in Hebrew as well, with the same suffixes or second parts of the second person plural.


In English the TH is typical. This is an alteration of the dental D, known in the Nordic tongues.The second part of them is again the same as in Hebrew etcetera.





We may safely conclude that , with all the differences, there is also quite a number of similarities between European and Hebrew pronouns.


Please see pronouns: table and comments. Please see pronouncing prono .





Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: Thursday 10 January 2013 at 19.43.09