E 0134          CADRE

The word " cadre ", via Italian and French, has come from Latin .

H 0418            ר ד ח

Concept of root : surrounding

Hebrew word


English meanings

ר ד ח


to surround

Related English words


Comparison between European words and Hebrew




English meanings

Similarity in roots


ר ד ח


to surround

gh . d . r





k . d r




c . d r



Proto-Semitic *GHADAR --- *QUADRUS Latin < GĀDĔR Indo-European



Different from entry E 0357 (Hebrew 0350) we see no metathesis here. As a case of similarity this one is a bit intriguing. The English word "cadre" has come from Latin "quadrus, kwadrus " via Italian and French.


An English "cadre" is a framework, something that surrounds, and is not per definition rectangular. Also the related words in French and Italian do not necessarily mean "square". But a general opinion reigns : "cadre" comes from, or at least is related to Latin "quattro" which is "four, 4". And our Hebrew root does not say 4, which is "arb’a", quite different.


Latin has a word for "triangle", "triquetrus" that comes from "tri-quadros". The second part in no way means "four", but must be akin to the Hebrew root of this entry "ghadar". The link with the number "quattuor" is that it would be a bit odd to form , like triquadros, as "quattuorquadros". It is nearly inevitable that such an obbrobrium becomes abbreviated. We may add to this that composed words with Latin, that begin with "quadr-" all refer to "four", but that the basic words "quadra" and "quadro" have kept a somewhat wider range of meanings. For example "quadro" says "to round off", not too terribly far from the "surrounding" of "ghadar".


Consequently the similarity between Hebrew "ghadar" and Latin "quadrus" is evident.



  • Hebrew here opens an interesting window on the way it may form its spelling. The concept of surrounding, enclosing, is found in the following roots :


    ג ד ר G D R, gadar, entry E 0357 (Hebrew 0350), a root also found in Aramaic and with a cognate in Arabic "jaddara"
    ח ד ר GH D R, ghadar, entry E 0134 (Hebrew 0418), a root seen in Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic and Akkadian
    כ ד ר K D R, kadar, entry E 0135 (Hebrew 0481), a root referred to also for Aramaic and Arabic
    כ ת ר K T R, kittèr, entry E 0136 (Hebrew 0518), a root present in Aramaic and Syriac
    ק ר ת Q R T, qeret, entry E 0197 (Hebrew 0780), a root used in Aramaic, Ugaritic and Phoenician


    The explanation we see for this is either a very refined diversification among the first consonants or local differences in pronunciation of what basically was one sound, found by the scholars who registered the alphabetic spelling of the word.


  • Hebrew with the same root has formed the word "ghéder", the common and also modern word for a "room", an internal space, surrounded by walls.


  • Proto-Semitic. The root is seen as well in Aramaic and Syriac "ח ד ר , ghadar = he enclosed, surrounded". Arabic has "ghadara = he surrounded" and one finds a good cognate in Akkadian "ad(u)ru = enclosure" . It was probably already used in Proto-Semitic "*ח ד ר , GH D R".


  • Indo-European. Latin. We have no clear evidence of cognates in other Indo-European groups of languages and our comparison remains limited to Semitic versus Latin and Proto-Germanic.


    Yet we must refer to entry E 0136 (Hebrew 0518) , where one reads the following note, regarding a related Proto-Germanic "*GĀTĔR" and Indo-European "*GĀDĔR":


  • Indo-European. Proto-Germanic "gater" may be related to Latin "quadrus", but a hypothesis for Indo-European is difficult. There must have been a initial consonant from the group "G, GH, K, Q", a second consonant "D" or " T " and a third consonant " R ". The first or main vowel should have been " Ā ". A hypothesis "*G Ā D Ĕ R-" may be right, but remains uncertain.


For the important word "quattuor" = "four", there is a hypothesis of "*quetuor" that may be right. There are many cognates , as Old Indian "catvārah", Avestan "cathwāré", Old Irish "čethir" and Old Church Slavonic "četyre".






Created: Tuesday 6 November 2007 at 22.30.54 Updated: 26/10/2012 at 14.17.13